Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Arthropoda, Subphylum Hexapoda, Class Insecta
Order Hemiptera From ancient hemi = half + pteron = wing
134 families, 82,000 described species
Though the term especially in American English is used also for insects of other orders, Hemiptera are the only that could properly called "bugs", and true bugs are in the suborder Heteroptera. But in the order are also cicadas, aphids, ticks.
Class Insecta Order Hemiptera Suborder Heteroptera Families Alydidae - Coreidae, Gerridae, Notonectidae
Broad-headed bugs are similar to Coreidae and often have thin legs. They feed seeds, piercing them with their proboscis to drink the nutritious fluids contained within.
They sap-sucking whose name "Coreidae" derives from the Ancient Greek κόρις (kóris) meaning bedbug. but they have nothing to do with them.
Water skeeters, water scooters,water skippers really walk on water and are aquatic predators. They are 90% fresh water bugs, but there are marine species too.
Backswimmers swim "upside down", They are all predators that vigorously paddle with their long, hair-fringed hind legs, as if they were oars.
Class Insecta Order Hemiptera Suborder Heteroptera Families Lygaeidae, Miridae, Gerridae, Notonectidae
Water scorpions are exclusively aquatic and are so called because their raptorial forelegs and the presence of a sort of tail at the posterior end of the abdomen.
Among seed bugs, there are also species that feed on sap or pods, omnivores and a few carnivores. They are often similar to Pyrrhocoridae, but we can distinguish them by the presence of ocelli,
Plant bugs, leaf bugs and grass bugs are the largest family of true bugs, includes over 10,000 species. Some of them are called also "mirid bugs" and have a hunched look
Damsel bugs are soft-bodied, elongate predators. They catch almost any insect smaller than themselves and sometimes bit humans.
Class Insecta Order Hemiptera Suborder Heteroptera Family Pentatomidae
Shield bugs have piercing sucking mouthpart and most are phytophagous. Scientific name is from Greek pente = five" + tomos = "section", and refers to the five segments of their antennae. Common name is because the body is shaped like a shield.
Class Insecta Order Hemiptera Suborder Heteroptera Family Pyrrhocoridae
The family name is from Greek: pyrrho = fire + coris = bug. We can distinguish them from Lygaeidae by the lack of ocelli (simple eyes) on the top of the head..
Class Insecta Order Hemiptera Suborder Heteroptera Families Reduviidae, Tessaratomidae, Tingidae
Together with the Nabidae, they are terrestrial predators (most other predatory Hemiptera are aquatic). Large specimens should be handled with caution, because they defend themselves with a very painful stab from the proboscis. They are called also wheel bugs.
Tessaratomids resemble large shield bugs. Some of them exhibit maternal care of eggs and offspring. The defensive chemicals of certain species can cause significant damage if they come into contact with human skin, and temporary blindness.
Lace bugs are very small. The adults look as made of delicate lace.Most feed on the undersides of leaves by piercing the epidermis and sucking the sap, If too many, they can be destructive for plants.
Class Insecta Order Hemiptera Suborder Auchenorrhyncha Families Aphrophoridae, Cercopidae, Membracidae
Treehoppers and thorn bugs are members of the family Membracidae. With fantastic shapes like helmets that enhance mimicry, often they resemble plant thorns. They pierce plant stems with their beaks and feed upon sap.
Spittlebugs are so called because Nymphs live immersed in a foamy mass similar to the saliva of a spit. They are visible outdoor, unlike the Cercopidae, that stay below the ground surface
They are commonly called froghoppers or also spittlebugs, , because as Aphrophoridae, in their juvenile stages most of them produce a stable and whitish foam, which envelops the body
Class Insecta Order Hemiptera Suborder Auchenorrhyncha Families Cicadellidae, Cicadidae
Leafhoppers suck plant sap from grass, shrubs, or trees. Their hind legs are modified for jumping. Two ocelli (simple eyes) are present on the top or front of the head
Males of true Cicadas produce sounds using a pair of tymbals Annual cicadas remain underground as nymphs for two or more yaers and some adults mature each year. Periodical cicadas emerge in synchrony in one location and are absent as adults in the intervening years. Genus Magicicada, emerge as adults every 13 or 17 years
Class Insecta Order Hemiptera Suborder Sternorrhyncha
This suborder of the Hemiptera contains: the aphids,that we can recognize only basing on the plant on which we find them; the whiteflies, very small insects feeding on the undersides of plant leaves;the scale insects,of extreme variable appearance, whose adult females have soft bodies and no limbs and extrude quantities of wax for protection.
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